Topic outline

  • General

    Welcome to Developing Multiplication Skills

    Welcome JPEGThis course is for teachers who are working with students to develop the concept of multiplication and achieve fluency with multiplication facts.

    Questions or Comments may be directed to: - K-2 Math Trainer - 3-4 Math Trainer - 5-8 Math Trainer - Elementary Special Education Math Trainer

    Please Note: Some of these files require a font called "Primer Print." If the file you wants to use looks funny try doing a Google search for "Primer Print Font" and install it on your computer. It's free and works on Windows or Mac.

    • Count Around

      Number Word Sequences for Multiplication

      Count Around

      Count AroundChildren stand in a circle and count around, each child saying the next number in the sequence. The child who says the target number (determined by the teacher) sits down. Practice skip counting sequences forward and backward.
      Teaching Number in the Classroom, Wright, Stanger, Stafford, Martland

      • Treasure Hunt

        Number Word Sequences for Multiplication

        Treasure Hunt

        Treasure Hunt
        Place the colored circles in a column and then place 10 cards face down at the side of each circle. Extra cards are the draw pile. The first child takes a card from the draw pile and places it in the correct location (color and numerical sequence), replacing the card that is there. The replaced card is handed to the next child and the game continues. If a child gets a Treasure Card, the next child takes a card from the draw pile.
        Teaching Number in the Classroom, Wright, Stanger, Stafford, Martland.

      • Quick Draw Multiples

        Number Word Sequences for Multiplication

        Quick Draw Multiples
        Quick Draw Multiples
        Use a deck of 40 cards. You will need 4 cards for each number in the selected sequence. You can use Treasure Hunt Cards with the circles and treasures removed or make 4 copies of the Multiplication Draw cards attached. Place 15 cards in a stack in front of the 2 players.
        This stack is the draw pile for that player. The remaining cards are divided into two stacks and placed face down between the players. (Leave space between the stacks for cards to be turned over.) Each player draws 3 cards from their draw pile. Next, simultaneously turn over a card from the middle stacks. A play is made from players' hand by placing the next multiple, either forward or backward, on top of one of the turned up cards. Both players play at the same time and may make a series of plays, so long as the plays are made one card at a time. As cards are played the player replenishes their hand (3 at any one time) from the draw pile. If neither player can play a card, new starter cards are turned up. The first player to play all their cards is the winner!
        From Teaching Number in the Classroom, Wright, Stanger, Stafford, Martland

      • Tools for Number Word Sequences

        Number Word Sequences for Multiplication

        Numeral Track

        Numeral Tracks
        Numeral tracks can be used to practice skip counting forward and backward. Start by leaving the flaps open on the numeral track. Have students say the numbers that they see on the numeral track. When students are able to say the numbers forward and backward, then close the flaps on the numeral track and have students practice the sequences as you lift each flap (or as you close the flaps when students count backward)

        Dot Cards

        Dot Cards
        Dot cards are used to practice skip counting forward and backward. Lay one card at a time and ask students to say how many dots there are (in total). Begin with a few dot cards and add 1 more card at a time, as the students develop fluency with the numerical sequence.

        Numeral Rolls

        Numeral rol
        Numeral Rollls can be used to help students practice skip counting forward and backwards. The document below includes the sequences for 2s, 3s, 4s, 6s, 7s, 8s, and 9s.

      • Websites for Multiplication

        Number Word Sequences for Multiplication


        Saucer Sorter
        Select a starting number and "count by" sequence you would like students to work on. You can mix up the order of the flying saucers and have the students rearrange them or cover one of the flying saucers with the star and see if students can say the numeral on the hidden flying saucer.

        Counting Stick
        Select: Horizontal
        Select: Steps of Constant Size
        Select: Count on - from 0
        Select: Step Size and Click "OK"

        • Skip Counting Practice

          Number Word Sequences for Multiplication

          Additional Resources
          Skip Counting Practice - the attached document can be changed by the teacher to have the students fill in different numbers in the sequence. The task following each sequence will help develop the concept of multiplication.

        • Circles and Stars

          Developing the Concept of Multiplication
          Circles and Stars - click for Marilyn Burns version of the game

          Number of Players: 1-2

          Materials: Dice and a Circles and Stars Game Sheet

          Players may play this game independently or with a partner. Each player rolls a die and draws that number of circles on their paper. Then each player rolls the die again and draws that number of stars in each circle. Players write the addition sentence and the multiplication sentence for each round to figure out their total number of stars. After four rounds, players figure out their total number of stars for the game. They can keep a running total or figure it all out after the fourth round. If they have a partner, the person with the highest total score after four rounds wins. A more challenging version would be to have players roll two dice and find the sum for their circles and shake them a second time and use that sum for their stars to achieve higher numbers.

        • Rectangles

          Developing the Concept of Multiplication


          During a series of rounds, players toss two dice that determine the length and width of rectangles that are constructed on 12 by 12 pieces of graph paper. Points are scored by finding the areas of rectangles (arrays). Players can share a game board and use different colored pens, or each player can have their own game board.

        • Arrays, Arrays, Arrays

          Developing the Concept of Multiplication

          Arrays, Arrays, Arrays

          This game is similar to Rectangles. Players share the Arrays, Arrays, Arrays game board and instead of rolling dice, players draw two numeral cards to determine the size of the array they draw. Instructions, numeral cards, and the game board are included in the attached document.
        • Multiplication Match

          Developing the Concept of Multiplication

          Multiplication Match
          Children will learn to understand the relationship between equal groups, repeated addition, counting by multiples and multiplication. This activity will help children practice multiplication facts through 6.

        • Topic 11

          Developing the Concept of Multiplication

          Multiplication Pairs
          This is a game for students to practice identifying arrays with their related multiplication fact. The game comes from Investigations, Grade 3 and the complete directions can be found in the book called Things That Come in Groups.
          • Pop Stick Drop

            Developing the Concept of Multiplication

            Pop Stick Drop -
            Materials Needed: Ten popsicle sticks with 4 dots on each (one side only).
            Scoring sheet, Pencil

            Students drop marked popsicle sticks and determine the number of dots showing. Watch how students determine the number showing. Do they count by 1s, skip count, use known facts?

            A scoring sheet and complete directions are attached.

          • Lemonade Stand

            Developing the Concept of Multiplication

            Lemonade Stand

            The activity "Lemonade Stand" can be found on Page 170 of Teaching Number in the Classroom, Wright, Stanger, Stafford, Martland. A recording sheet is attached.

          • Websites

            Developing the Concept of Multiplication


            Space Arrays
            Find out how many rows and how many in each row. Find the product. Connects arrays to multiplication problems.

            • The Game of Remainders

              Developing the Concept of Multiplication/Division

              The Game of Remainders
              Each pair of students needs 15 counters, 6 small paper plates and a die, as well as a piece of paper and a pencil. Instructions for the game are below.

              The big Math Ideas include:

              • When we divide, we share into equal parts.
              • Division sentences describe the action of sharing.
              • When we divide, most often there is a remainder.
              • What we do with that remainder counts.

              Played strategically this game can address notions of prime and composite numbers and can support students in connecting multiplication with division…

            • Additional Resources

              Developing the Concept of Multiplication

              Additional Resources
              Models for Multiplication
              The attached document illustrates different models for multiplication.

              Marilyn Burns Questions about Multiplication
              This document is a list of questions to consider when you are thinking about the depth of understanding that a student has for the concept of multiplication.

              Grey and Black Dot Array
              The attached document has a 10 by 10 array, with half the dots grey and half the dots black.

            • Multiplication Scramble

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Multiplication Scramble

              This game practices multiplication facts 1s through 12s. The goal is to fill in every line of the scramble grid. The directions and score card master are attached.

            • Winning Touch Games

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Winning Touch Games

              This set of games provides practice with multiples of 6, 7, 8 and 9. The Winning Touch to 6 is a Word document and Winning Touch to 9 is an Excel spreadsheet that has the game boards and directions for Winning Touch to 7, 8 and 9. It would be a good idea to enlarge the game boards and cards for Winning Touch to 7-9. We made them small, so the directions would fit on the same page.

            • Cover Four or Four in a Row

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Cover Four or Four in a Row
              These games helps develop an understanding of the quantities involved in
              multiplication as well as learning multiplication facts. The game appears in Teaching Number in the Classroom as "4's a Winner." Directions and game boards are included in the attached document. There are also 4 different versions of Four in a Row attached.

            • Multiplication Draw

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Multiplication Draw
              This card game is from The Math Learning Center website for Bridges in Mathematics. It will give students practice with their multiplication facts. The game uses a variety of models for multiplication including the array model, counting patterns, and equal groups. Click on the title Multiplication Draw above to link to the Bridges website for complete directions for this game. Multiplication Draw is activity 18 on that link.

              The More or Less Spinner can be used with any game to determine which player gets to keep the cards and/or win the game.

            • Zig Zag

              Developing Fact Fluency


              This game provides practice with addition, subtraction, multiplication and division basic facts. The game board with directions are attached.

            • Topic 23

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Multiplication Bingo
              This multiplication game helps children combine equal groups of 2-digit numbers.

              Division Race
              Division Race helps children learn how many groups of a number are in a two-digit numbers. The game also helps with practicing multiplication facts 4-9.

              The attached document includes instructions and game boards for both games.

            • Jungle Remainders

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Jungle Remainders
              This game gives students experience solving division problems with remainders. Players move along the game board and solve division problems. The first player to reach the end of the game board is the winner. Instructions and game pieces are included in the attached document.

            • Leap Frog

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Leap Frog
              This game helps students practice multiplying two-digit numbers. Encourage students to estimate the answers before multiplying the numbers. The attached document includes instructions and a game board.

            • Remainders Count!

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Remainders Count!
              This game helps students practice dividing numbers. The object of the game is to be the first person to cover 5 "remainders" on the board. The attached document includes instructions and a spinner. A game board is also attached.

            • Additional Resources

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Additional Resources

            • Triangle Tower Multiplication

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Triangle Tower Multiplication
              Players roll the dice and cross off the product on their Triangle Tower. The first player to cross off all the products on his/her tower is the winner. The attached file includes directions and three levels of the game.

            • Multiples and Factors Decision Game

              Developing Fact Fluency

              Multiples and Factors Decision Game
              Divide the factor cards between two players and place them face down in a pile.
              Each player takes a turn to place a factor card on a matching multiple. Some of the factor cards can be placed on more than one multiple. If one player needs a multiple that has already been covered, then they remove the factor card and give it back to the other player, replacing it with their own factor card. The winner is the first person to place all their cards.

            • Topic 30

              • Topic 31

                • Topic 32

                  • Topic 33